Firearms Identification is one of the prominent disciplines of forensic science. Firearms identification can be defined as;
"A discipline of forensic science which has its primary concern to determine if a bullet, cartridge case or other ammunition component was fired via particular firearm."
Firearms Identification is actually a form of tool marks identification where the firearm acts as a tool to leave unique marks on the various ammunition components that come into contact with the firearm as it is made of a material harder than the ammunition component.
- Examination of submitted firearms to determine manufacturer, model, Caliber, serial number, and functionality.
- Examination of evidence bullets and cartridge cases to determine (with submitted firearms) if either or both were fired in or from the firearms.
- Examination of evidence ammunition to determine the manufacturer, bullet type, and country of origin (where manufactured).
- Examination of submitted tools in conjunction with evidence toolmarks or silicone casts to determine if the tool was used to create the toolmark.
- Restoration of altered, modified, or obliterated serial numbers.
- Analysis of gunpowder patterns on a variety of evidence, using submitted firearms and ammunition to determine the distance from the muzzle to the point of impact.
- Shooting scene reconstruction using trajectory analysis to determine the sequence of two or more events in a particular incident utilizing information derived from the physical evidence.
- Shotgun Shots Pattern Analysis to determine the distance of the shooter from the target.