Firearm Tool Marks

Firearms Identification is one of the prominent disciplines of forensic science. Firearms identification can be defined as;

"A discipline of forensic science which has its primary concern to determine if a bullet, cartridge case or other ammunition component was fired via particular firearm."

Firearms Identification is actually a form of tool marks identification where the firearm acts as a tool to leave unique marks on the various ammunition components that come into contact with the firearm as it is made of a material harder than the ammunition component.


  • Examination of submitted firearms to determine manufacturer, model, Caliber, serial number, and functionality.
  • Examination of evidence bullets and cartridge cases to determine (with submitted firearms) if either or both were fired in or from the firearms.
  • Examination of evidence ammunition to determine the manufacturer, bullet type, and country of origin (where manufactured).
  • Examination of submitted tools in conjunction with evidence toolmarks or silicone casts to determine if the tool was used to create the toolmark.
  • Restoration of altered, modified, or obliterated serial numbers.
  • Analysis of gunpowder patterns on a variety of evidence, using submitted firearms and ammunition to determine the distance from the muzzle to the point of impact.
  • Shooting scene reconstruction using trajectory analysis to determine the sequence of two or more events in a particular incident utilizing information derived from the physical evidence.
  • Shotgun Shots Pattern Analysis to determine the distance of the shooter from the target.